# Mechanical Properties of Liquids And Fluids Class 11 Physics Notes Ch 10

**Class 11 Notes Chapter 10 Revision Notes**

**Class 11th physics notes**, notes for topper, Quick Revision notes pdf download most important Important Point 11th Exam notes, Physics wallah alakh Pandey pdf notes

**Mechanical Properties of Fluids**

**CBSE**

**Class 11 Physics notes**

CBSE Class 11 Physics Chapter 10 (Mechanical Properties of Fluids) Revision Notes - Free PDF Download

According to the most recent CBSE syllabus, Class 11 Physics Chapter 10 Mechanical Properties of Fluids is part of Unit 7, which is on Properties of Bulk Matter. This unit will contain questions for a total of 20 points. Mechanical Properties of Fluids revision notes on Vedantu will help you understand all of the major concepts and theories taught in this chapter. Our subject matter experts have highlighted the important themes of Chapter - 10 Mechanical Properties of Fluids as per the forthcoming CBSE Class 11 test curriculum below

**Class 11 physics Chapter 10**

**Mechanical Properties of Fluids**is an important study material for the Students who are presently studying in CBSE 11th standard. The NCERT Results for

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## CBSE Class 11 Physics Chapter 10 Mechanical Properties of Fluids Notes

Fluids: Fluids can be defined as any substance which is capable of flowing.

They don't have any shape of their own.

⚫Both liquids and gases can be categorised as fluids as they are capable of flowing.

Pressure: It is defined as force per unit area.

Pressure = Force/Area

Pressure is a scalar quantity,

Dimensional Formula [ML]

Unit: N/m² or Pascal(Pa)

• Atmosphere unit (atm) is defined as pressure exerted by the atmosphere at sea level.

1atm=1.013x10" Pa

### Pascal's Law:

Pascal's low states that if the pressure is applied to uniform fluids that are confined, the fluids will then transmit the same pressure in all directions at the same rate point For a uniform fluid in equilibrium, pressure is same at all points in a horizontal plane. This means there is no net force acting on the fluid the pressure is same at all the points.

Variation of pressure with depth Consider a cylindrical object inside a fluid fluid is at feet therefore the force along the horizontal direction is 0.

• Forces along the vertical direction Consider two positions 1 and 2.

Force at position I is perpendicular to cross sectional area A,

This net force will be balanced by the weight of the cylinder(m). Cylinder is inside the fluid. Fmg weight of the cylinder weight of the fluid displaced.

Fap Vg (where padensity-volume of the fluid) =phAg (where V-hA, h=height and A= area)

Therefore (P-P.) A phAg

P-P₁ = phg.

Then P₂ = Po + phg

(PP, where P. is atmospheric pressure.)

Conclusion: The pressure P, at depth below the surface of a liquid open to the atmosphere is greater than atmospheric pressure by an amount phg.

**Hydrostatic Paradox**: It means: hydro = water, static = at rest, Paradox = something takes place surprisingly.

As pressure is dependent only on height therefore in all the 3 vessels the height reached by the water is some irrespective of difference in their shapes.

⚫ This experiment is known as Hydrostatic Paradox.

### Atmospheric Pressure:

Pressure exerted by the weight of the atmosphere is known as atmospheric pressure. • Pressure is always measured by taking sea level as the reference level. At sea level P-1.01*105 Pa. point

1 atm = 1.01 x 10" Pa

1 atm = 76cm of Hg column

1 torr = 133 Pa

1 bar = 10" Pa

### Gauge Pressure:

Pressure difference between the system and the atmosphere,

⚫ From relation P = P+pgh (where P = pressure of any point, P. atmospheric pressure) dy

P-P, pgh

**Absolute Pressure**: It is sum of atmospheric pressure and gouge pressure.

It is the actual pressure which o substance has; Gauge Pressure: Pressure difference between the system and the atmosphere. From relation P = Pepgh (where P = pressure or any point. Pi atmospheric pressure)

Absolute Pressure: It is sum of atmospheric pressure.

• It is the actual pressure which a substance has Pressure and gauge pressure.

They are used in car service stations to lift the cars

Pascal's law for transmission of fluid pressure: It states that the pressure exerted anywhere in a confined incompressible fluid is transmitted undiminished and equally in all directions throughout the fluid.

1. Hydraulic lifts Hydraulic lift is a lift which makes use of a fluid. insure a hydraulic lift there are 2 platforms one has a small area and the other one has a larger area. It is a tube like structure which is filled with uniform fluid.

⚫ There are 2 pistons (P, and P:)which are attached at both the ends of the tube.

• Cross-sectional area of piston P, is A, and of piston P₂ is Az.

If we apply force F. on P₁ pressure gets exerted and according to Pascal's law the pressure gets transmitted in all the directions and same pressure gets exerted on the other end. As a result the Piston P: moves upwards.

⚫ Mathematically:- F₂ = PA₂

F= (F/A)A2 (where P=F₁/A₁)

F= (A/A1)F

Because of Pascal's law the input gets magnified.

2.

**Hydraulic Brakes**: Hydraulic brakes work on the principle of Pascal's lowTherefore when we apply force on a small pistan, pressure gets created which through the fluid to a larger piston. As a result of this larger force,uniform bringe applied on all four wheels. As braking force is generated due to hydraulic pressure, they are known as hydraulic brakes.

• Liquids are used instead of gas as liquids are incompressible.

**Steady Flow**: The flow of a fluid is said to be steady, if any point, the velocity of each passing fluid particle remains constant within that interval of time point

• Streamline is the path followed by the fluid particle.

⚫ Steady flow is termed as 'Streamline flow and 'Laminar flow

•No two streamlines can intersect

If two streamlines intersect each other, the particles won't know which path to follow and what Equation of Continuity: any liquid is flowing in streamline flow in a pipe of non-uniform cross- section area, then rate of flaws of liquid across any cross-section remains constant.

Av constant (A is cross section Area, and V is velocity) • We can conclude that As v₁ = As V₂. This is the equation of

This equation is also termed as "Conservation of mass of incompressible fluids.

**Turbulent Flow**: A fluid flow is said to be turbulent if the velocity of the particles vary at any paint

Eddies are generated by this flow. Eddies are same as ripples, All the particles are moving here and there randomly.

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