Class 11 Physics Ch 11

Thermal Properties of Matter Class 11 Chapter 11 Notes 

Thermal Properties of Matter Convection, conduction and Radiation

Class 11 Physics Ch 11 Notes
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 11 - Download Free PDF *This chapter has been removed from the CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, according to the most recent release.
Class 11 Chemistry NCERT Solutions Chapter 11 The p-Block Elements allow students to test their knowledge of p-block elements and learn about the various ideas associated with them. The Chemistry solutions for Chapter 11 include all of the important questions from the CBSE textbook, as well as the Class 11 Syllabus (2023-24) in CBSE schools.

Along with solutions to textbook questions, these NCERT Solutions give instance problems and worksheets to help you learn the material. 

Class 11 Physics Chapter 11 Thermal Properties of Matter  is an important study material for the Students who are presently studying in CBSE 11th standard. The NCERT Results for Class 11th Physics, give clear and precise answers  physics together that will help you to Understand the content completely. Scoring good marks in the Class 11th Second term test is Very important as compared to any other class because the marks scored in Higher secondary Class HSC will help you to take admission in your desire Course, stream, college and University.

Key Notes for CBSE NCERT based Class 11th Physics

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CBSE Class 11 Physics Ch 11 Notes Thermal Properties of Matter  

Temperature and Heat

Temperature is defined as the measure of degree of hotness or coldness of a body.

Example:- A cup of hot soup or a scoop of Ice-cream.

The 5.I. Unit of Temperature is Kelvin (K) and some of the commonly used units are: Fahrenheit ("F) and Celsius ("C)

Heat is the form of energy transferred between two (or more) systems or a system and its surroundings by virtue of temperature difference.

For eg. a cup of hot coffee can be considered as system and anything apart from hot coffee is surroundings. Then the heat will flow from one object to another as there is difference in temperature.After some time we will see this hot cup of coffee will became cold as there will be transfer of heat.

The SI Unit of Heat is joule (yona pame of the commonly used

units are calorie and kilo calorie point

1 calorie-4 18 Joules

1kilocalorie 1000 calories

Measurement of Temperature: Temperature is measured with the help of thermometer. Mercury and Alcohol are commonly used liquids in the liquid-in-glass thermometers.

The ice and steam point in Fahrenher temperature scale are 32°F and 212 "F resp. It is on Celsius Scale values are 0°C and 100°C for ice and steam point resp. It has 100 equal

The relation between the temperature in Celsius and in Fahrenheit is given by the equation is:

Where t=Fahrenheit temperature.

Celsius temperature

Ideal-gas Equation and Absolute Temperature

A thermometer that uses any gas, however, gives the same readings regardless of which gas is used because all gases have same expansion at low temperature Variables that describe the behaviour of gas are:- Quantity(mass), Pressure, Volume, Temperature


Gases which have low density obey certain laws:-

1.Boyle's Law- PV = constant

(when temperature T is constant) 2. Charles' Law- V/T = constant (when pressure P is constant)

If combine bath the above laws the equation becomes PV = RT where R is called universal gas constant and its value = 8.31 J mol! K

• PV=RT is the ideal gas equation which is applicable only at low temperature. For any quantity of dilute gas, PV = RT where u, is the number of males in the sample of gas.

In a constant volume gas thermometer temperature varies with respect to pressure Temperature

changes linearly with increase in pressure Absolute Zero: Absolute Zero is defined as minimum absolute temperature of an

The relation between the temperature in kelvin and in Celsius scale  

Comparison of Kelvin, Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature Scales





3. Volume Expansion - The expansion in volume.

Thermal Expansion: Thermal expansion is the phenomenon of increase in dimensions of a body due to increase in its temperature

Linear Expansion: 

Linear Expansion means expansion in length As we can see images the length has been increased from 1 to 1+

If the solid is in the form of long rod, then for small change in temperature, AT the fractional change in length, Al/l, is directly proportional to AT.

Where as the coefficient of linear expansion due to increase in temperature.

It is denoted by a. It is characteristic of the material of the rod. It varies for different substance.

Area Expansion: Area Expansion can be defined as expansion in area due to increase in temperature. In case of area expansion there is increase in both length wise and breadth wise,

DA/A=0, AT

Where a coefficient of area expansion.

Coefficient of Area Expansion is defined as degree of area expansion divided by the change in temperature. This means there is increase in area of an object with the change in temperature. point It is denoted by a. It is characteristic of the substance and it varies with temperature.

Volume Expansion: It can be defined as expansion in volume due to iner as in means there is increase in length, breadth and height of a substance temperature. This varies with temperature.

AV/V =0, AT 
Coefficient of volume expansion of copper as a function of temperature-

500 Temperature

Anomalous Behaviour of Water: Water shows some exceptional behaviour that is when it is heated at 0°C, it contracts instead of expanding and it happens till it reaches 4 °C. The volume of a given amount of water a minimum of 4" therefore its density is maximum (Refer the Fig). After 4 °C water starts expanding Below, the volume increases, and therefore the density decreases. This means water has Advantages of Anomalous behaviour of Water

• Because of this property of water in lakes and ponds freeze only at the top layer and at the bottom it does not, but if the water freezes at the bottom also then animal and plant life would not be possible. 

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