Acid, Bases And Salts Class 10 Notes Science Chapter 2

 Acid, Bases And Salts Class 10 Notes CBSE Science Chapter 2

CBSE NCERT Class 10 Notes Science contains physics, chemistry and biology notes of chapter 2 Chemical Acid Bases And Salts topics given in textbook are part of Revision Notes for Class 

Science Notes cover an overview of the main given points of every concepts and Topics in the NCERT TextBooks Class 10th Science this Chapter Notes includes topic/concepts wise explanations for all the topic provided in the book such as Acidic, Basic , Chemical Properties of Acid and Base , Reaction of Acid , pH Scale , Conduct of Electricity,  Plaster of Paris , Washing Soda (Sodium Carbonate, Na2CO3.10H2O)  , Types of Salts: Rock Salt , Common Salt

Well prepared Class 10th Science  all Chapters Notes will guidance students understand the topics ,concepts and themes covered in all the chapters of Ncert Text book of 10th 

CBSE Class 10 Science Ch 2

CBSE Class 10 Chapter-wise Science Notes 


- Acids have sour taste.

- They turn blue litmus to red.

- They give positive hydrogen (H+

) ions in water solution.

Strong Acids – HCl (Hydrochloric Acid), H2SO4 (Sulphuric Acid), 

HNO3 (Nitric Acid)

Weak Acids – CH3COOH(Acetic acid), Oxalic Acid, Lactic Acid

Concentrated Acids – More amount of acid + Less amount of 


Dilute Acids - More amount of water + Less amount of Acid

Litmus turns Red in Sulphuric Acid and Lemon/Orange

Read Also: Class 10 Science Reference books

Chemical properties of acids:

1. Reaction of acid with base:

Acid + Base → Salt + Water

Acid and base together react to produce salt and water. This reaction is called Neutralization reaction.

Examples -

KOH + HCl → KCl + H2O

2. Reaction of acid with metal:

Acid + Metal → Salt + Hydrogen gas

Examples -

Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2

3. Reaction of Metallic Oxides with Acids:

Metal oxide + Acid → Salt + Water

Examples -

CuO + HCl → CuCl2 + H2O   

4. Reaction of acid with metal carbonate and metal hydrogen


Acid + Metal carbonate /Metal hydrogen Carbonate → Salt +

CO2 + H2O

When an acid reacts with a metal carbonate (MCO3) or metal hydrogen carbonate (MHCO3), it gives the corresponding salt, carbon dioxide (CO2) gas and water.

Examples -

Na2CO3 + 2HCl → 2NaCl + H2O+ CO2

NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + CO2

5. Conduction of electricity:

Acidic solutions in water conduct electricity because they produce hydronium ions. Hydrogen ions cannot exist alone, but they exist after combining with water molecules. Thus hydrogen ions must always be shown as H+

(aq) or hydronium ion (H3O+). i.e. H+ + H2O → H3O+

Strength of Acid

We can test the strength of Acid by using a scale called the

pH scale.

pH value of acids is always less than 7 

Read Also: Class 10 English literature Reference books


- Bases are bitter in taste and soapy in touch.

- They turn red litmus to blue.

- They give negative (OH-

) ions in water solution.

Strong Bases - NaOH (Sodium Hydroxide), KOH (Potassium

hydroxide), Ca(OH)2 (Calcium hydroxide)

Weak Bases - NH4OH

Alkalis - These are bases which are soluble in water.

Litmus turns Blue in Sodium Hydroxide and Soap/ Colgate

Chemical properties of Bases:

1. Reaction of Base with Metal:

Base + Metal → Salt + Hydrogen gas

Examples –

2NaOH + Zn → Na2ZnO2 + H2

Only Some Metals react with Base

2. Base in water:

Bases generate hydroxide (OH–) ions in water.

Water soluble bases are called alkalis.

Examples -

Mg(OH)2 + H2O → Mg+2 + 3OH-

3. Reaction of a Non-metallic Oxide with Base:

Non-Metal oxide + Acid → Salt + Water

Examples –

CO2 + Ca(OH)2 → CaCO3 + H2O

From this reaction, it is clear that Non-metallic oxides are acidic in nature. 

4. Conduction of electricity:

Bases in water also conduct electricity as the acids do. As bases also dissociate into hydroxide ions in water thus conducts electricity. The process of dissolving a base in water is a highly exothermic one.

 Strength of Base

pH value of Base is always less than 7

More the value of pH is stronger the Base will be.

pH Scale:

- A Scale to measure the strength of an Acid or a Base.

- The pH scale is marked with numbers 0 to 14, The pH varies from

0 (very acidic) to 7(neutral) and 14 (very alkaline).

- Higher the pH value then it will be Basic

- Lower the pH value then it will be Acidic.

 pH < 7 Acidic

 pH = 7 Neutral

 pH > 7 Basic. 

Types of Salts:

1. Rock salt ( सेधा नमक)

Salt when present in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is

rock salt. When seas of bygone ages dried up, beds of rock salt

were formed in the form of large brown crystals.

(Brown due to impurities present in it).

(काला नमक/ चाट मसाले वाला नमक)

2. Common salt

Salt whose chemical composition is mainly NaCl is common salt.

(Tata Salt - देश का नमक 😜😜) 

Read more.. or Download Class 10 Chapter 2 Acid Notes..  

Importance of Class 10th Science Notes

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