Carbon And It's Compound Class 10 Notes Science Chapter 4

Carbon And It's Compound Class 10 Notes CBSE Science Chapter 4 

CBSE NCERT Class 10 Notes Revision Science Chapter 4 Carbon And It's Compounds topics given in textbook are part of Revision Notes for Class 

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Carbon And It's Compound Class 10 Notes CBSE Science Chapter 4


➢ Carbon is Non-Metal. Its symbol is C.
➢ All the living things, Plants and animals are made up of Carbon.
➢ Carbon always forms covalent bonds
➢ The atomic number of carbon is 6.
Element configuration
 C(6) 2 4

Covalent Bond

➢ A covalent bond is formed when pairs of electrons are 
shared between two atoms.
➢ It is mostly formed between two same nonmetallic atoms or 
between nonmetallic atoms.

Examples of Covalent Bonding
1) Single Bond in Hydrogen (H2)
Hydrogen needs 1 more ein outermost shell to complete octet.
2) Double Bond in Oxygen (O2)
Oxygen needs 2 more ein outermost shell to complete octet.
3) Triple Bond in Nitrogen (N2)
Nitrogen needs 3 more ein outermost shell to complete octet.
 Or H-H
 Or O=O
 Or N=N

4) Water (H2O)
Oxygen needs 2 e to complete its octet while Hydrogen needs 1 
e, So Oxygen shares one-one electron from 2 hydrogens to 
complete its octet.

Physical Properties of Covalent Compounds

a) Covalent compounds have low melting and boiling points as they 
have weak intermolecular force.
b) They are generally poor conductor of electricity as electron are shared between atoms therefore no charged particles are formed.

How carbon attain Noble gas configuration?

Carbon is Tetravalent, it does not form ionic bond by either losing 
four electrons (C4+
) or by gaining four electrons (C4-
). It is difficult to hold four extra electron and would require large amount of 
energy to remove four electrons. 
So, carbon can form bond by 
sharing of its electrons with the electrons of other carbon atom or 
with other element and attain noble gas configuration.

Versatile Nature of Carbon

The three characteristic properties of carbon element which lead 
to the formation of large number of compounds.
1) Catenation -
The self-linking of atoms of an element to create chains 
and rings by covalent bonds.

2) Tetravalency
Carbon has 4 valence electrons. Carbon can bond with four
carbon atoms, monovalent atoms, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur.

3) Tendency to form Multiple Bonds –
Due to its small size carbon has a strong tendency to form 
multiple bonds (double and triple bonds) by sharing more than
one electron pair with its own atoms or with the atoms like 
oxygen, nitrogen etc.

Allotropes of Carbon

Allotropy is the property by which an element exists in more than 
one form and each form has different Physical Properties but 
similar Chemical Properties.


➢ It is formed by bonding of each carbon atom is Covalently 
bonded to four other forming Rigid 3-D Structure.
➢ It is the hardest thing on Earth.
➢ It is a bad conductor of electricity. This is because all the valence electrons of each Carbon are involved in the Covalent Bonding, and no unpaired electrons are left in the crystal It has very high melting point.
➢ It is used for making Jewellery and cutting Glasses


➢ It is formed by bonding of each carbon atom hexagonally (six members rings) in same plane.
➢ It is very soft and slippery because Layers can slide over one
➢ It is a good conductor of electricity because in graphite every 
carbon is bonded with three other carbon atoms. So last 
electron in every carbon atom is free to move.
➢ It is used for making Pencil Leads, Engine Oils, Batteries and 


➢ Fullerenes form another class of carbon allotropes.
➢ First one to be identified was C – 60, which has carbon atom 
arranged in the shape of football.
➢ It has 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons. )


Compounds made up of hydrogen and carbon are called hydrocarbon.

Saturated -

Compounds of carbon which are linked only by single bonds between
the carbon atoms.
Types of saturated hydrocarbons -
Alkanes - The hydrocarbons in which all the carbon atoms are 
linked by only single covalent bonds are called alkanes.
General formula - CnH2n+2

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