Class 10 Science Ch 3

 CBSE NCERT Class 10 Science chapter 3

Chapter 3 – Metals and Non-metals Notes For Class 10 Download pdf
Science Notes cover an overview of the main given points of every concepts and Topics in the NCERT TextBooks 

Class 10 science notes, PW notes for class 10 , physics Wallah- Alakh Pandey, handwritten , Notes for topper , youtube notes the class 10 notes, medical notes  , Free read online notes , chapter summary question class 10 , Most important notes

The class 10 Science revision notes will clear up the concepts of every student. It has been get ready by expert Teachers keeping the latest CBSE Syallabus 2023-24 in Mind. 

 CBSE NCERT Class 10th Science Notes Present a Various of important topics and Concepts like Chemical Reactions and Equations, Acids, Bases, and Salts, Metals and Non-Metals, carbon and Its Compounds, periodic Classification of Elements, life Processes , control and Coordination much more

Key Notes for CBSE NCERT based Class 10th Science 

Metal's & Non Metals  Best Handwritten Notes 2023

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All the naturally occuring elements are broadly grouped into two categories, metals and non-metals

Some common metals are gold (Au), silver (Ag), lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), aluminium (Al), magnesium

(Mg), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), etc.

Some common non-metals are nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), carbon (C), sulphur (S), phosphorus (P), Chlorine (CI) etc.


An element is a substance that is made entirely from one type of Atom

Example: Hydrogen, Helium, Oxygen


A metal is an element, whose atoms readily lose electrons to form positive ions (cations), (except hydrogen) and form metallic bonds with other metal atoms and ionic bonds with non-metallic atoms. Metals are electropositive elements as they form positive ions by losing (donating) electrons. Among all the know 118 elements, most of them are metals.

Major metals in the earth's crust are:
Aluminium (Al), Iron (Fe), Calcium (Ca), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K) and Magnesium (Mg).

Metals Occurrence of Metals Physical Properties of Metals

Activity Series of Metals
Chemical Properties of Metals
Uses of Metals

Occurrence of Non-metals

Physical Properties of Non-metals Chemical Properties of Non-metals

Uses of Non-metals

⚫ Comparative study of Metals and Non-metals

⚫ Interactions in Metals and Non-metals Chemical Bond

Causes of Chemical Bond Formation

Types of Chemical Bonds

⚫ Ionic Bond

Examples of Ionic Bond

Nature and Structure of lonic Compounds > Characteristics of Ionic Compounds

Metals in Nature Ores

1 Metallurgy Extraction of Metals Extraction of Various Metals According to their reactivity

⚫ Alloys

Preparation of Alloys

Properties of Alloys

Some Important Alloys


Essentials of Corrosion Corrosion of iron (Rusting of Iron)

• Quick Recap

⚫ Assignment

Occurrence of Metals

Metals are found mainly in the earth's crust, both in the free state as well as in the combined state. A) Combined State: Highly reactive metals are present in the form of their compounds as carbonates, sulphates, oxides etc in the reactivity series, all the metals above copper are found in the combined form as sodium is present in the form of sodium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium carbonate etc.

B) Native/Free State: Less reactive metals are generally found in their elemental form in the free state or in native state as Gold (Au); Silver (Ag), Plantinum (Pt) etc. are found as such in nature.

Physical Properties of Metals

There are some properties which are helpful in the recognition of metals are:  

A) Physical State: Most of the metals are hard solids at room temperature.

Example Iron (Fe), Silver (Ag) etc

Reason The sons of metals are rigidly or tightly packed in the crystal  Sodium (Na) and Potassium (K) metals are soft

(b) Mg (Mercury) is a liquid metal

B) Melting and Boiling Point: Metals generally have high melting points and high boiling

Example Beryllium (Be) has1287°C (mp) and 2472°C

Reason strong forces of attraction Cain and gallium have such low melting points that they even met on keeping on one's paim Due to the rigid packing of atoms in the crystal, atoms are held together by Exception: Na and K have low melting and low boiling points

C) Lustre: The mstances with shiny and reflecting surfaces are generally metals. Metals in their form have lustr

Example: Gold (A) has a shiny surface while wood does not have lustre Reason Due to electronic vibrations.

D) Malleability: Metals can be beaten into thin sheets. This property is called malicability Example Aluminum, Gold, Silver can be beaten into this sheets i aluminum fole gold foils and silver foils (Gold and silver are most malleable Due to the elastic nature of metals ie, they can beat the stress

Exception: Zinc (Zn) is non-malicable at most of temperatures however, it is interesting to know that it becomes malleable between 100-150°C and again becomes malleable above 210C

X) Ductility: Metals can be drawn into chains or wires. This property of metals is called Example Gold (Au) and Silver (Ag) cham, Cable wires (copper wires) Gold is the

Reason: melt ductile metal. Due to the elastic nature 

F) Thermal Conductivity: Transfer of heat from one end of a substance to the another end in known as thermal conductivity Metals em transfer heat from one end to other end so they are called thermal conductors Example: When utens are heated from bottom the whole put turm bot. It means that the heat is transferred from bottom to all other parts of the utensil, Silcer and copper are the best conductors of heat

Exception Mercury (Hg) and Lead (Pb) are poor conductors of beat G) Electrical Conductivity: Have you ever noticed that to switch on a TV we insert the power cable of television into an electric socket, and TV starts working. It is just because the thin wires of metal inside the cables transfer electricity from electric socket to TV. This property of metals is called electrical conductivity. On removing metal wire from cable. we cannot turn on our electrical appliances

Example: Silver, Copper, Iron oto


Due to the presence of free electrons H) Sonority: Metals produce a ringing sound when struck with hard material,

of metals is called snority and therefore metals we called som Example Wind chime of metal sticks or hand bell

1) Strength: (breaking)

Metals are strong, they can hold heavy weights without sapping

Example: Iron metal in different forms, used for different purposes as in making bridges, vehicles, railway lines, buildings

Exception: Sodium and potassium are soll metal J) 


Metals usually have high densities ie, they are heavy substances Example: Iron and manganese have high densities ie. 78 g/cm² and 74 g/cm?

Reason Due to rigid much, mumber of atoms and their mass per and volume is

more Exception. Sodium and potassium have low densities e, 0.97 g/cm³ and 0.806 g/cm respectively 

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